The articles contained in this volume address these issues from new theoretical and empirical perspectives. Based on data from about 50 languages from all over the world, this volume presents new arguments for the proper derivation of clefts, and contributes to the ongoing debate on the information-structural impact of cleft structures. Theoretically, it combines modern syntactic theorizing with investigations at the interface between grammar and information-structure. List of contributors. Predication and specification in the syntax of cleft sentences. Wh -clefts and verb-initial word order in Austronesian languages.
Pseudo clefts at the syntax-prosody-discourse interface. The cleft pronoun and cleft clause in English. The morphosyntax of wolof clefts: Structure and movement. Multiple Wh-questions and the cleft construction in Malayalam. Cleft partitionings in Japanese, Burmese and Chinese.
Italian clefts and the licensing of infinitival subject relatives. Almost all the chapters in the book undertake comparative analysis and together, all the chapters introduce a wealth of new data for consideration. I recommend this book to anyone who has an interest in linguistic interfaces and analysis. Second language acquisition of pragmatic inferences: Evidence from the French c'est-cleft.
Gheorghe, Mihaela Pseudo cleft constructions in old Romanian. Diacronia Linguistics Generative linguistics. Introduction Katharina Hartmann and Tonjes Veenstra. Part I. Predication and specification in the syntax of cleft sentences Marcel den Dikken. Pavey, In terms of semantics, the logical structure -proposed here also bears a resemblance to the structure for restrictive relative clauses.
The difference is that in NPs containing restrictive relative clauses, the relative clause logical structure is within a noun phrase, whereas for cleft, the BE predicate structure forms the main predication of the sentence. A restrictive relative clause NP logical structure is given in 72 for comparison. In NPs containing restrictive relative clause forms the second argument of BE predicate. In relative clauses, the refrent of the head noun is restricted to only being one to the exclusion of the others- that fits with the modifying description given by the predicate phrase in the relative clause.
This is similar to the situation in cleft where the identity of the referent of the clefted constituent is restricted to one which can exclusively fill the missing argument in the predicate phrase set up by the cleft clause. As previously mentioned in 2. In other words, the relationship between cleft clause and clefted constituent is not as modifier of nominal head but as a clause containing a variable for which the referential elefted constituent provides the value.
The proposed structure thus reflects this important difference between cleft and restrictive relative clauses: in cleft the determiner operates on the clefted constituent noun and this forms the unit that the peripheral cleft clause modifies. For NPs, the situation is reversed. The examples below in figure 2 highlight this difference and include the NP operator projection ibid.
Pavey Another way this difference is realized in terms of the presupposition attached to restrictive relative clause and to it-cleft. A sentence such as 73a , containing a restrictive relative clause, has presupposition given in 73b where the referent of man that the TV is within the presupposition of existence that the definite determiner assumes.
The main presupposition for it-clefts in 74a on the other hand, excludes the referent of the clefted constituent the TV man merely presupposes that "someone" exists that was seen by the speaker. Pavey, 8 This has something to do with the scope of the definite determiner which has existential condition those licenses its use. As Figure 2 shows, in NPs the head "man" as well as the modifier the relative clause "that mends the TV' are within the scope of the determiner and its existential condition. In cleft, however, only the clefted constituent noun "TV man" is within the scope of that NP determiner this constituent is the asserted part of the sentence or the value , and therefore by definition not part of the presupposition the variable.
In other words, the relative-type clause is not within the scope of the determiner in the clefted constituent, whereas it is within the scope of the determiner in NPs with restrictive relative clauses ibid: 9. Hedberg maintains for the referential status of the cleft clause or elements within it, based on assumptions about the significance of similarities with the other types of specificational sentences which contain two referential units.
It is true that it-clefts do create a pragmatic presupposition which includes the existence within the discourse of referent, as 75 illustrates, for which the assertion provides the identity of the referent. Semantically the cleft sentence contains the presupposition "I saw someone". The content of this presupposition is not to be found solely in the semantic content of the cleft clause without reference to the clefted constituent as the personhood of someone illustrates.
This latter type of pragmatic presupposition seems to correspond more closely to what is referred to as the "variable" the identity of referent of the" looser" pragmatic presupposition I saw someone" is given by the content of the clefted constituent or part of it. The clarification is often made in the literature where pragmatic presuppositions are taken to stand for the semantic content of the cleft clause, and thus stand as evidence for linking the cleft clause with the cleft pronoun. The semantically-coindexed argument within the cleft clause is represented as x if lexically unfilled or as a WH-word if one is used.
Pavey calls for the specification sentences such as 76 , 77 , 78 , which are examples of, respectively pseudo cleft, reverse pseudo cleft and NPvs NP" sentences have the function of specifying, or identifying a value for variable. What I want is a Mercedes. A Mercedes is what I want. The real criminal is Mr. The value-variable approach gives a more accurate of the function of the cleft construction. The function is not necessarily to highlight or place into focus a particular clefted element but to highlight or assert an exhaustive relationship between the clefted constituent and cleft clause.
Davidse compares "it-clefts" to "there-cleft" and "have-cleft" as in 79 and 80 and suggests that the cleft pronoun determiner operates on the clefted constituent. Hedberg on the other hand compares "it-clefts" with "this cleft" and "that-cleft" as in 81 and 82 which seek to show the link between the pronoun as determiner and the cognitive status of the cleft clause. The position of the cleft pronoun in the sentence is clearly suitable to be exploited for different pragmatic, discourse and possibly semantic purposes while it operates as a syntactic dummy argument-participating in question formation and verb agreement with the copula.
There's John who's causing us trouble. We have john who's causing us trouble. This was john that I saw. That was john that I saw. Hedberg, 2. This element is the source of different interpretations and analyses.
Copular Constructions in Syntax - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics
Cleft constituent, as the logical structure and the syntactic structure in figure 3 shows to function simultaneously as a semantic, referential argument and syntactic predicate forming the nucleus of the copular matrix clause. Gundel and Pavey argue that specificational sentences containing two NPs such as aim to specify a referent rather than attribute and the copular verb is the predicate of the sentences. The doctor is jenny. It is essentially an SV C sentence pattern with a nominal relative clause as subject or complement. Like the cleft sentence, the pseudo- cleft makes the same separation between given and new information, given and new part of the communication.
Winograd explains that the pseudo-cleft is another phenomenon of cleft structure that allows nearly any combination of the elements of the clause to appear at front or back. The main verb of a pseudo- cleft sentence is "be", but, instead of having it as the subject, a nominalized relative clause is created. Dummy verbs like do can be used to enable the subject and verb to appear in different halves.
The same thing can be seen in: What we need is a good five-cent nickel. What we did then we gave them back their clothes. What he will be after doing it is exhausted. A big hug is what you need most right now. Not every sentence with a nominalized relative clause as its subject and "b" as main verb is an example of clefting or pseudo- clefting as in sentence 88 which is nominal attributive clause. What we need is obvious to anyone who thinks about it.
What he's done is to spoil the whole plan. Sometimes, the wh-clause consists of verbs in the perfective or progressive aspect; in such conditions, the complement also matches that aspect. What she's done is ruined the economy. What they are doing is cleaning the room. It is indeed only with what-clause that we can make a direct comparison or choice between the two constructions. Clauses with who, where, and when are sometimes acceptable, but mainly when the wh-clause is subject complement. Here is where the accident took place. In autumn is when the countryside is most beautiful.
The police chief was who I meant. It must have been the manager that spoke to you. The person who spoke to you must have been the manager. Somebody I particularly like is john. The way you should go is via Cheltenham. The place where the accident happened is here. The hour at which she must make her decision was fast approaching.
The way we make a cake is by following mother's recipe. What I like about Joan is her sense of humor. The cleft and pseudo -cleft types can occur together. To illustrate: What it was you asked for was a ticket to Brighton. Did you mean Birmingham? Rather, they tend to start with this or that and have fairly low information. They are thus very useful for summarizing, distancing yourself from or ending a topic of conversation. So, that is how it works. So, that is what happened. These terms are defined differently within different approaches. This study follows Halliday , who identifies the theme on the basis of its position in the clause initial position.
This means that in a typical English declarative sentence with the SVC. Order, the subject makes up the theme, whereas the rest of the sentence makes up the rheme. According to the Hallidayan approach 52 , the theme may extend over several components, but always ends with the first experiential element, i. This element is called the topical theme Halliday Information structure is discussed in terms of given and new information. Given information is usually, but not necessarily, placed as the starting point of the utterance, in thematic position, whereas new information is usually placed in focus at the end of the sentence, in the rheme Halliday ff.
The use of cleft constructions is one way to manipulate the thematic structure to focus on and add emphasis to a certain element. As can be seen in the following examples from Collins 1, 3 , the it-cleft in b and the pseudo-cleft in c adds focus to the subject "Tom", which is not in focus in the regular declarative sentence in a : a Tom offered Sue a sherry.
Cleft constructions have other properties, i. A cleft implicates that something is expressed exclusively, in b and c who it was that offered Sue a sherry, and presupposes the existence of something as a fact, in b and c that someone offered Sue a sherry. Collins, 69ff. However, these aspects of the cleft construction are not the focus of the current research. They explicitly state that is not a semantic level since a great number of effects attributed to information structuring does not effect the sentence meaning in terms of propositional content e.
Consequently, approaches to information structure employ other fields like psychology for an explanation of informational contrasts. However, the informational organization does not only interact with other linguistic levels, but also plays an essential role in several linguistic aspects of meaning. For example, it is essential for the construction and the coherence of a discourse, for the choice of anaphoric elements, for the interpretation of the adequate speech act and so on. More importantly, information structure is necessary for the interpretation of sentences with focus -sensitive particles like only, also, too or adverbs of quantification like always, sometimes etc.
Here, it is seen truth conditional effects of different informational organizations of the text, which is the primary sign that the latter is of semantic import. Therefore, semantic theories of information structure are built on the analysis of focus- sensitive particles. Their contribution to sentence meaning depends on the informational structuring of the sentence, which is considered to consist of a focus part and a complement to this focus.
This complement is known under different terms such as presupposition, frame, open proposition, shared knowledge or background. The focus-background effects are informally illustrated by the , the focus on Fred is said to induce a presupposition that Sam talked to someone and that there are reasonable alternatives that would have been good choice for this someone, as well. There are alternatives to Sam under discussion. In , the focus particle only is translated into an operator that quantifies over alternatives to Fred and asserts that if such an alternative fits the background, then it is identical with the focus Fred.
This corresponds to the paraphrase that nobody but Fred is such that Sam talked to him. Nobody but Fred is such that Sam talked to him or her. The adverb of quantification in asserts that for most occasions in which Sam invites someone to the movies; it is Fred who is invited. Here, the adverb of quantification is translated into an operator which takes two arguments and compares the two: the set of times when Sam invites someone to the movies and the set of time when he invites Fred.
The operator states that most time points of the first set are also in the second set. Here, the operator does not quantify over the focus, but the focus indicates how to form the proper domains for quantifier. Sam usually invites Fred F to the movies. The background corresponds to a semantic structure that I will call here the p-skeleton, following Jackndoffs presuppositional skeleton, other expressions are open proposition, frame etc. The focus induces or evokes alternatives in one way or other.
The value of focus, i. The p-skeleton, the set of alternatives, and the value of the focus combine to form the assertion and the presupposition of the sentence. The presupposition is formed by existential closure, i. The following six assumptions are shared by most semantic approaches to focus and information structure in general : General assumptions of semantic theories of information structure i The sentence is divided into two parts: the focus and the background.
The focus is semantic concept and marked by a pitch accent. The relation between pitch accent and focus is mediated by the syntactic feature F. Focus operators can express relation between these objects. This concept of the informational structure of a sentence corresponds more to the discourse anchoring aspect of information structure than to the aboutness aspect. In other words, focus- background structure is defined analogously to the given - new distinction.
This view combines aspects of what other theories describe as information focus in terms of givenness, and contrastive focus in terms of background, alternatives and an operation on both. The view advocated by semantic theories does not distinguish between these two kinds of focus, they rather intend to overcome this distinction and understand both as one basic phenomenon. In fact, it is not clear whether there are any semantic criteria for a classification into two independent classes of focus. Focus Assignment Rule first approximation Jackendoff; The semantic material associated with surface structure nodes dominated by F is the Focus of the sentence.
To derive the presupposition, substitute appropriate semantic variables for the focused material. The focus feature F on the NP-node in is phonologically interpreted as pitch accent on Fred, and its semantic interpretation says that Fred is the focus whereas sam talked to someone is the presupposition. The annotated surface structure is sometimes called focus structure: The difference in focus is illustrated by different intended questions a - a. This relation between the pitch accent and the annotated surface structure is calledfocusprojection.
These constructions are illustrated in the following examples taken from Collins : The study includes both basic pseudo clefts, i. Quirk et al, , my underlining Since this study is concerned with cleft constructions as representing a choice made by the writer as regards how to distribute information in the sentence, only examples which have non - cleft counterparts following the basic sentence pattern are include. Furthermore, due to the fact that the focus of the study is on aspects of thematic properties of clefts. It-clefts is not considered subordinate, since modal clause such as I believe and I think they are treated as what Halliday ff describes as "metaphors of modality" similar to expressions such as probably and certainly, thus only making up a modal theme and not the topical theme.
Pseudo-Cleft The difference between pseudo -cleft and it clefts lies in the expression which refers to the topic. In it-clefts this expression occurs initially i.
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In this case this topic typically refers to some entity which is not only familiar to the addressee inattention but it is already focused on. In addition, since the relative clause in the It-clefts is not a surface subject and does not occur in sentence initial position , we expect that it will not refer to the topic as consistently as the relative clause in the wh-cleft.
In fact, the relative clause in it-elefts is often stressed and in such instances it is interpreted as part of the new information asserted or questioned in the sentence. This use of it - clefts is illustrated by the sentence, It was just about 50 years ago that Henry Ford gave us the weekend. Prince, The relative clause in the wh-cleft typically refers to the topic either activated or inactivated and the material in the clause is, generally interpreted as a background assumption, while the relative clause in it-clefts either refers to an activated topic if it is unstressed or it does not refer to the topic at all if it is stressed.
In the former case the content of the clause is interpreted as a background assumption which the speaker's and addressee's attention is already focused on, in the latter case it is interpreted as part of the comment, i. Gundel, Prince , on the other hand remarks that the difference between pseudo-cleft and it-elefts is due to the fact that the former construction can focus on animate NP whereas the latter can focus on both an animate and an inanimate NP.
The most common assumption about the information structure of it-clefts is that the clefted constituents new, often contrastive, information Biber et al The subordinate clause typically conveys presupposed information prince She calls this stressed focus it-elefts, thereby indicating the discourse function of clefts, namely to give special focus to the clefted constituent. Gundel refers to this information structure in clefts as prototypical.
This is illustrated in table 1 from Halliday, Table 1 marked and unmarked information focus combined with unpredicted and predicated theme. In Collins's comprehensive study of cleft constructions, , it- clefts have a new clefted constituent and a given cleft clause, although the clefted constituent is new in a clear majority of cases. Another type of information structure in it - clefts is described by prince and others after her: Collins , Delin and Oberlander , Johansson, , namely the informative presupposition cleft, in which the cleft clause conveys new information.
The clefted constituentmay contain either given or new information in an informative presupposition cleft in both clefted constituent and cleft clause are new, since the sentence occurs text-initially. Prince According to prince , the information in the cleft clause is encoded as a non-negotiable fact. Although it is new, it is presupposed rather than asserted, i,e. Prince says that " the whole point of these sentences is to inform the hearer of that very information' ibid: Delin : , however, claims that the information within an it — cleft presupposition appears to remind rather than inform; even though it may not it actual fact be known to the hearer ibid: They point out that the highlighted element can have the function of subject, direct object, adverbial of time and position and marginally, the function of indirect object and object complement.
These functions are all applied to this following basic sentence. John wore a white suit at the dance last night. S as focus It was JOHN who wore a white suit at the dance last night. It was a white suit that john wore at the dance last night. A time as focus. It was last night that john wore a white suit at the dance.
A position focus It was at the dance that john wore a white suit last night. It was the dance that john wore a white suit at last night.
Its dark green that we have painted the kitchen. It was a doctor that he eventually became. It is Annie who did it. Annie did it. We can realize that both sentences adhere to the basic SVO pattern. The subject in is put in non initial, i. This may be due to the fact that only old recoverable elements normally occur toward the cleft of an information unit old-before new principle. Thus, if the subject is new, a speaker might be tempted to shift it to the right by cleaving in order to conform to the pattern of new information coming late in the sentence.
This is due to the fact that contrastive it- cleft or stressed- focus it cleft contains a new highlighted elemen. Moreover, a sentence like would have nucleus on the initial element which is, however, highly unusual. English clearly prefers to put the nucleus as far right as possible. The principal means of indicating the focus within an intonation-group is nucleus placement tonicity. According to halliday , pitch prominence is always associated with new irrecoverable information.
This however, does not seem to be entirely true. Although it is most commonly irrecoverable information that constitutes the focal part of an information-group, it would be a misleading oversimplification to equate the nucleus- or more generally pitch prominence with irrecoverable material. As Cruttenden points out "there are some occasions when we may wish to focus on particular piece of information even though it is old [recoverable]".
This applies particularly to cases of nucleus placement which are described as "contrastive" 3. One of them, the so- called "end focus principle" Quirk et al, This has indeed some psychological plausibility because the preceding recoverable information facilitates the processing of the irrecoverable information which follows.
It also combines very well with the tendency in English to put the nucleus toward the right of the clause. Closely related to the end-focus principle is the principle of "end weight" quirk et al, This is hardly surprising since irrecoverable information which usually comes at the end often needs to be stated more fully. Syntactic focusing device such as clefting are not only closely linked to the above mentioned general principles but also to prosodie focus makers, notably nucleus placement.
It will therefore be interesting to take a closer look at how prosody and syntax interact in the case of the it-cleft construction. The pronoun can be fronted from a position in a prepositional phrase, or form a pushdown position in a noun clause as object: It is the girl that I was complaining about. Its uncle bill whose address I lost. Thus: It was the dog to which I gave the water.
She was the woman to whom I gave the water. The main reason for the high frequency of that, no doubt, is its semantic flexibility. Whereas who for example, requires a human antecedent, the antecedent of that can be both human and non human. My left leg hurts. What hurts is my left leg. I like her style. What I kike is her style.
In addition he suggests the following constructions which begin with thing and first The first thing was to make some coffee. My first journey abroad is something I shall never forget. All you need is love. You pay here. This is where you pay or here is where you pay Swan also asserts that there is difference in the use of the relative element when used in the formal and informal cases, especially when the emphasized subject is a pronoun. It is I who am responsible. It is me that's responsible.
I'm the person who's responsible. Also we can give extra emphasis to the whole sentence by using cleft structure with what and the verb happen. Consider the structure of language as consisting of three functional aspects; the propositional content; the illocutionary content and thematic structure. The propositional relates to the information which the speaker wishes to convey to the listener, to" states" and "events" which he wishes to talk about; the illocutionary content relates the speech act. This last operation is called "frame and insert" by Clark and Clark, and clearly related to the Prague school notion of "theme and rheme".
Halliday's three macro- functions of language ; , the ideational or informative, the interpersonal and the textual are undoubtedly an influence on, if not the main source of Clark and Clark's divisions. Under this last function he includes the structures " theme and rheme and given and new information; Halliday goes on to link his three functions with the three types of subject which can occur in clauses.
Halliday lists the themes of typical clauses as follows in a declarative clause the grammatical subject is usually the theme; in a polar interrogative the auxiliary verb is usually the theme; in a wh- interrogative the wh-word is usually the theme and in an imperative sentence the lexical verb is usually the theme. If an element other than the one listed occupies the initial position in the clause then the "theme" is said to be marked i.
They are followed by the full range of thematic possibilities for closes this independence establishes them as outside the system. Some discourse level connectives like first, second may go with chunks of speech much larger than classes, but they also appear top be a thematic for the same reason. In between a thematic elements like these and fully thematic things like object topicalisation, there seems to be range semi-thematic introducers that restrict some of the possibilities of what can be topicalised after theme but leave others open.
Clauses appear to impose mild restrictions in some languages. Modally oriented introducers like perhaps have a similar effect. Thus, following Halliday and Grimes we can discount coordinating and subordinating conjunctions and discourse connectors from acting as the "theme". There are, however, some other cases occurring in our texts which require further discussion. Chapter four Cleft sentence as a stylistic feature 4.
Both literary texts and popular fiction can make use of stylistic devices which appear to be used by writers with intention of capturing the attention of readers at crucial points in stories. If readers are generally in attentive to what they read, stylistic devices can be used to make them more attentive at key points in a text. One reason why we have been interested in the heavy use of attention controlling devices of key plot moments in that heavy foregrounding may sometimes seem to prompt readers to make inferences about the plot and any inference-making could be examined by psychological methods Emott et al, , for discussions of how this might be relevant to responding to clues in detective novels.
It has mostly been associated with analyses of literary works literary stylistics and has been closed to literary theory and criticism, or with approaches that differentiate good from bad style evaluative stylistics. In the most recent decades stylistics has been developing in the frame work of functional linguistics and sociolinguistics sociolinguistics , pragmatics pragmatic stylistics , cognitive science cognitive stylistics , ete, Salvador, 7. As such, stylistics has been given a lot of attention and many scholars from different schools of linguistics have written elaborated works on stylistics and its domain.
Functional position in modern linguistics, and its domain trends. To illustrate, Widdowson, study that stylistics is seen as the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. Short, seems to exhibit a similar point of view which maintains that" stylistics is an approach to the analysis of literary text using linguistic description "thus, stylistics links the two subjects, literature and linguistics.
In this regard, Galperin believes that stylistics is concerned with the application of linguistics to the study of literature and it gets its importance from the interference in many aspects of language. This stance can be further enhanced by other scholar s such as Wellek and Warren who believe that: Linguistic study becomes literary only when it serves the study of literature, when it aims at investigating the aesthetic effects of language; in short when it becomes stylistics.
Stylistics, of course, cannot be pursued successfully without a through grounding in general linguistics.
However, the function of stylistics and its relationship with literary analysis have been investigated by many linguists in the sense that both stylistic and literary analyses use language as a basis for the investigation of style and the importance of involving linguistic analysis to literature lies in examining the linguistic features of a text which can contribute a great deal to the readers' understanding. The reason behind paying attention to the linguistic study of literature emerges from the fact that any literary work is a piece of language.
Crystal and Davy, point out that linguistics is an academic discipline which studies language scientifically where as stylistics studies certain aspects of language variation and therefore it is essentially of that discipline. This idea is supported by Turner who defines' stylistics' as that part of linguistics which concentrates on variation in the use of language, often, but not exclusively, with special attention to the most conscious and complex uses of language in literature "He elaborates that merely to name variation implies a scheme to vary from.
Thus, the stylization needs to begin with a theory of linguistic scheme and relate it into particular speeches or writings. The importance of linguistic for the study of literature has been defended by Wellek : Stylistics is not only the science of literature. It is the study of rhythm and meter, vocabulary, syntax, and even the study of structures exceeding the limits of a sentence. In this regard, Fowler says: Stylistic description in linguistic terms is the description of patterns at the level of form, specifically the identification of patterns found by the arrangement of linguistic variables.
Patterns occur at any of the three levels, i. Moreover, concerning the relationship between linguistic stylistics and literary study, Leech and Short point out that: There is a cyclic motion whereby linguistic observation stimulates or modifies literary insight, and whereby literary insight in its turn stimulates further linguistic observation. The two scholars' statement implies that there is a reciprocal interrelationship between the two disciplines, i. Regarding the definition and the function of stylistics, Leech maintains that" stylistics" in its broadest sense studies "how language use varies according to varying circumstances, e.
Leech ibid: states that the goal of stylistics is to study "variation" in the use of language and" deviation". On the level of variation, there are certain parameters for constituting style: 1 parameter of "formality" slang, informal, formal, literary use, etc. Parameterof "medium" spoken versus written language , and 3. In effect, every style that is used for communication within a group, large or small, close-knit or scattered is associated with some features which are accepted as communicative by members of that group Chapman, The argument of stylistics could be supported by quoting the definition proposed by Lyons who maintains that "stylistics is the study of stylistic variation in languages and of the way this is exploited by their users.
Traugott and Pratt 29 state that "style results from a tendency of a speaker or a writer to consistently choose certain structures over other available in the language" So, for them style is concerned with the characteristic choice in a given context. The idea of choice, of selection of meaningful options involving a range of variants, is very important in the sense that a writer's style in a work can be determined by a series of options that the text manifests and which are selected from a given range of possibilities which the language offers.
The importance of choice is emphasized by Saporta 19 : "Style may be concerned with selection and arrangement. He ibid: 93 adds: "the description of the selection and the arrangement of linguistic features in relation to norms is conceived as the essence of stylistics.
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For example, the decision to write about the Trojan War, or whale Fishing is not a stylistic one. But the stylistic one is the choice of the best verbal means to express a predetermined subject-matter. It is the choice between the various meanings or shades of meaning that cluster round a given subject. The same idea is clear in Leech and Short's statement who show that "the analysis of style is an attempt to find the artistic principles underlying a writer's choice of language. In this term, it has been argued that style can be seen as a conscious or unconscious selection from existing optional language features and obligatory structures of language, such as most of the segmental phonology, the mutation plural, and the fixed sequence of auxiliary verbs within complex verb phrase.
The demand, publication, and sales of detective fiction exploded during the s and s. In fact, it is this period when its classic, "Golden Age" form reached its maturity and sealed its reputation. Julian Symons argues that "crime literature is almost certainly more widely read than any other class of fiction. It also does not fit neatly into the low-brow category. Instead, it borrowed from both high- and low-brow forms as part of the "Culture of the middle," which developed in the interwar years. This middle-brow culture emerged out of economic, social, and technological change, especially in the forms of mass communications and mass entertainment.
Howard Haycraft muses that during the bombings of London in , detective fiction consistently dominated requests in the "raid" libraries of the shelters. By , detective fiction comprised one quarter of all published fiction. Since the s, careful literary studies have appeared that examined the general and timeless appeal of the detective story as a mentally stimulating puzzle in addition to dissecting its structure and format as distinctive formula fiction.
These specialists sought more than anything to make detective fiction a respectable literary genre, rather than proving its sociological or historical significance. In the s, an immense increase in critical studies devoted to crime stories emerged, best represented by H.
What they have aimed to answer is the same riddle that perplexed literary specialist and critic Willard Huntington Wright in What, then, constitutes the hold that the detective novel has on all classes of people-even those who would not stoop to read any other kind of popular fiction?
Why do we find men of high cultural attainments-college professors, statesmen, scientists, philosophers, and men concerned with the graver more advanced, more intellectual problems of life-passing by all other varieties of best-seller novels, and going to the detective story for diversion and relaxation? For readers, the initial and most obvious appeal of detective fiction is how it presents a "dramatic problem,. By the interwar years, the rules of "fair play" evolved, perhaps because of writers' desires for the genre "to be the accurate reflector of a sociological scene. Ernest Mandel observes that "Exact time is always mentioned, precise locations offered, sometimes complete with maps and other sketches.
The actions of the Characters are described in the most minute detail, as are their clothes and physical appearance. As for characters,. The success of a detective novel depended on the use of the natural, the matter-of-fact, and the commonplace. Wright concurs: The plot must appear to be an actual record of events springing from the terrain of its operations; and the plans and diagrams so often encountered in detective stories aid considerably in the achievement of this effect. A familiarity with the terrain and a belief in its existence are what give the reader his feeling of ease and freedom in manipulating the factors of the plot to his own which are also the author's ends.
Because of this social realism, detective fiction provides a glimpse into the dominant conventional ideologies, attitudes, values, and mores of the interwar years. In , detective novelist and creator of the famous Father Brown series, G. Chesterson "defended" his artistic medium, Not only is a detective story a perfectly legitimate form of art, but it has certain definite and real advantages as an agent of the public weal. The first essential value of the detective story lies in this, that it is the earliest and only form of popular literature in which is expressed some sense of the poetry of modern life.
Like any other form of popular fiction, detective writing "follows rather than parallels social change," thus making the genre's conservatism immediate from its beginnings. Put another way, the genre must be conservative if it is all about a disruption that gets resolved at the ending of each novel or story. After all, few people want to escape or retreat into a work of chaos and uncertainty. Just as it does with its solutions, detective fiction affirms the absence of chaos and uncertainty in England's social system.
The Golden Age detective novel, more so than any other genre of popular fiction, reveals that even after such a cataclysmic event as WWI, very little significant transformation had actually taken place within England. What domestic metamorphosis did occur in the wake of the Great War was easily managed in detective fiction, which asserted that change did not necessarily mean the erasure of traditional, accepted late Victorian and Edwardian mores and values.
Fiction held out the promise that compromise between the new and the old could be reached and maintained. The masters of the genre managed to forge the contradictory natures of "change" and "tradition" into the soothing form of what Alison Light calls. She came from a tightly knit, upper-middle-class family. Her father, Frederick Alvah Miller, grew up in Massachusettes, and married his step-cousin, Clara Margaret Boehmer, whom he met while visiting his American father and his English step-mother in Manchester. Her father was a jovial, carefree man of leisure and for a time the family lived comfortably on the investment income from his father's company in New York.
Watson, In , she experimented with detective fiction for the first time. Her sister Madge, who introduced her to detective stories, complained that contemporary authors seemed incapable of writing really clever detective stories and challenged Christie to write one. Christie accepted this challenge and began work on what would become The Mysterious Affair at Styles. She worked on it sporadically and finished it while on a two-week leave from the hospital.
Christie sent dozens of publishers the manuscript, but the number of rejections discouraged her. Then, she sent it to John Lane at Bodley Head, who took nearly a year to respond. Finally, they set up an interview with her and then a contract to publish The Mysterious Affair at Styles in The book was not an astonishing success and sold 2, copies initially. It took about half a dozen books published in the s to convince her that she could earn a solid living from writing detective stories.
By Christie's success convinced her to entertain other publishing offers. When her contract with Bodley Head expired, she signed with William Collins and Sons, thus beginning a lifelong partnership. In , The Murder of Roger Ackroyd appeared and caused an immediate sensation as readers and critics alike screamed "Foul Play! At the same time, Christie's marriage to Archie dissolved. He was having an affair with and planned to marry a Miss Teresa Neele, whom he met during a golf game Christie always tried to reconstruct contemporary everyday life as realistically as possible.
In essence she created a living environment in which characters function naturally, as evidenced by her use of natural, modern dialogue and expressions. Winks, She utilized representations of real people that she met throughout her life. After reading her autobiography, readers can then go back into her fiction and recognize exactly who she based many of her characters upon.
Growing up, the author Eden Phillpotts lived close to Christie. When Christie was a teenager, Phillpotts volunteered to look over some of her writings and give her some constructive criticism. A few of his observations stood out from all of the rest, which he sent to her in a letter: You have a great feeling for dialogue. You should stick to gay natural dialogue. Try and cut all moralizations out of your novels; you are much too fond of them, and nothing is inore boring to read.
Try and leave your characters alone, so that they can speak for themselves, instead of always rushing in to tell them what they ought to say, or to explain to the reader what they mean by what they are saying. That is for the reader to judge for himself. She took this advice seriously, and her respect for his keen literary insights shows throughout all of her works. Whether she liked it or not, Christie knew that changes had occurred and always attempted to be as up-to-date as possible.
Raymond Chandler once sarcastically remarked that all of Christie's crimes take place in "Cheesecake Manor," Wilson, , obviously expressing the opinion that her fiction is out of touch with reality. On the contrary, many pertinent revelations emerge out of her painstakingly realistic fiction. The themes, expressions, characterizations, and dialogue she carefully selected help fill in gaps in both traditional and revisionist interwar histories, and sometimes challenged accepted analyses of standard topics, especially those of religion, class, and empire.
She was well-known for not speaking much in public, but she expressed her opinions on art of writing as she described her writing process in her autobiography, which is simply titled An Autobiography. Symons, She had always been named as such an avid reader of literature. Her library ranged from Charles Dickens to P. Wodehouse, and Lewis Carroll to William Shakespeare. She was famous for creating mysteries around some famous nursery rhymes, too. She injected these authors' books and more plus nursery rhymes and poetry into her dialogue, plots, and titles.
And yet, it is familiar with its quaint and quiet English villages and the influence of politics in people's lives. Hers is a little more real than a reader suspects. Christie mystery lover can separate the villains from the rest of the cast. Finally, her book dedications are listed, with meaningful background information on the people who touched Christie's life.
Trodd, 4. This is an amalgam of two models. This technique of analysis is followed throughout the story in order to be eclectic and comprehensive. Selected data according to prince , the sentence is divided into two parts; the sentence takes its name from the fact that the single clause of the basic sentence pattern wh-cleft is split into two clauses.
We recognize a clause by presence of subject and verb The wh-cleft is a sentence that splits the basic clause into two parts with, one of the sentence's parts beginning with a word that starts a wh. The theme in this sentence pattern is an "empty" function word, a pronoun, it, that really has no meaning like an ordinary pronoun since it refers to nothing. Instead, the it cleft allows the writer to focus on the actor in the first example below or on the goal, as in the second example below: Grammar Subject Verb Complement Meaning Theme Process focus on Actor Example It was John who sent the letter to Mary.
In systemic linguistics, the grammatical subjects in the it cleft and wh-cleft sentences above are called "marked" themes since those sentences do not begin with the expected, common, ordinary subject of the basic clause pattern which is called the "unmarked" theme. Another type of marked theme can be seen below, a type characterized by the use of the grammatical object at the beginning of the sentence. In the example above, the direct object the letter holds the focus of attention as it takes the lead in the sentence.
I can't, believe, knowing Barbara, that it could have been anything really serious. On the other hand - "she paused, then went on. Grammar subject verb complement Meaning theme process goal Example what I mean is Barbara was a bit of Simple tone in some ways Murder in the Mews: 31 In this example, the fact that the basic clause has been split into two clauses allows the author to emphasize on "Barbara" the subordinate clause what I mean is the theme of the wh-cleft above: theme is the term used in systemic linguistics for part of the clause.
In this case Christie gives her readers a special hint to look for the clue of the story joyfully. Hogg drew herself up. A note of excitement disguised Beneath intense primness came into her voice. Always spoke a nice word to the children, she did. Lost her own little girl, I believe, poor dear. Ah well, I've buried three myself. And what I say is yes, yes, very sad. Grammar subject verb complement Meaning theme process goal Example what I sa is yes, yes very sad. Murder in the Mews: 26 In this example the author splits the clause with emphasis on the actor I and the goal.
He's a very careful man. Oh, yes. He's been here quite a bit off and on. Member of parliament, they do say. Murder in the Mews: 26 The author expresses the negation and adds the focus on the pronoun he the actor by using interrogative tone. Well, we'll have to get hold of this military gentleman with the toothbrush moustache.