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Bringle and Donna K. Duffy Co-published with the American Association for Higher Education. Falender and Edward P. Shafranske This book guides readers through a science-informed process of supervision that clearly delineates the competencies required for good practice. Social psychologists study such topics as the influence of others on an individual's behavior e.

Social cognition fuses elements of social and cognitive psychology in order to understand how people process, remember, or distort social information. The study of group dynamics reveals information about the nature and potential optimization of leadership, communication, and other phenomena that emerge at least at the microsocial level.

In recent years, many social psychologists have become increasingly interested in implicit measures, mediational models, and the interaction of both person and social variables in accounting for behavior. The study of human society is therefore a potentially valuable source of information about the causes of psychiatric disorder. Some sociological concepts applied to psychiatric disorders are the social role, sick role, social class, life event, culture, migration, social, and total institution.

Psychoanalysis comprises a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially conflict originating in the unconscious mind. Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality , repression , and the unconscious. These subjects were largely taboo at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for their open discussion in polite society.

Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, influenced by Freud, elaborated a theory of the collective unconscious —a primordial force present in all humans, featuring archetypes which exerted a profound influence on the mind. Jung's competing vision formed the basis for analytical psychology , which later led to the archetypal and process-oriented schools. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the midth century include Erik Erikson , Melanie Klein , D. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought which could be called Neo-Freudian. Among these schools are ego psychology , object relations , and interpersonal , Lacanian , and relational psychoanalysis.

Psychologists such as Hans Eysenck and philosophers including Karl Popper criticized psychoanalysis. Popper argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline, [98] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities mostly marginalized Freudian theory, dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact. Humanistic psychology developed in the s as a movement within academic psychology, in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis.

It emphasized subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology. Later, positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific modes of exploration. Humanistic psychology is primarily an orientation toward the whole of psychology rather than a distinct area or school.

It stands for respect for the worth of persons, respect for differences of approach, open-mindedness as to acceptable methods, and interest in exploration of new aspects of human behavior. As a "third force" in contemporary psychology, it is concerned with topics having little place in existing theories and systems: e. Swiss psychoanalyst Ludwig Binswanger and American psychologist George Kelly may also be said to belong to the existential school.

Austrian existential psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl drew evidence of meaning's therapeutic power from reflections garnered from his own internment. Personality psychology is concerned with enduring patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion—commonly referred to as personality—in individuals. Theories of personality vary across different psychological schools and orientations.

They carry different assumptions about such issues as the role of the unconscious and the importance of childhood experience. According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of the id, ego, and super-ego. Although the number of proposed traits has varied widely, an early biologically-based model proposed by Hans Eysenck, the 3rd mostly highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century after Freud, and Piaget respectively , suggested that at least three major trait constructs are necessary to describe human personality structure: extraversion—introversion , neuroticism -stability, and psychoticism -normality.

Raymond Cattell , the 7th most highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century based on the scientific peer-reviewed journal literature [] empirically derived a theory of 16 personality factors at the primary-factor level, and up to 8 broader second-stratum factors at the Eysenckian level of analysis , rather than the "Big Five" dimensions. However, despite a plethora of research into the various versions of the "Big Five" personality dimensions, it appears necessary to move on from static conceptualizations of personality structure to a more dynamic orientation, whereby it is acknowledged that personality constructs are subject to learning and change across the lifespan.

The popular, although psychometrically inadequate Myers—Briggs Type Indicator [] sought to assess individuals' "personality types" according to the personality theories of Carl Jung. Behaviorist resistance to introspection led to the development of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI , in an attempt to ask empirical questions that focused less on the psychodynamics of the respondent.

Study of the unconscious mind, a part of the psyche outside the awareness of the individual which nevertheless influenced thoughts and behavior was a hallmark of early psychology. In one of the first psychology experiments conducted in the United States, C. Peirce and Joseph Jastrow found in that subjects could choose the minutely heavier of two weights even if consciously uncertain of the difference.

His text The Psychopathology of Everyday Life catalogues hundreds of everyday events which Freud explains in terms of unconscious influence. Pierre Janet advanced the idea of a subconscious mind, which could contain autonomous mental elements unavailable to the scrutiny of the subject.

Behaviorism notwithstanding, the unconscious mind has maintained its importance in psychology. Cognitive psychologists have used a "filter" model of attention, according to which much information processing takes place below the threshold of consciousness, and only certain processes, limited by nature and by simultaneous quantity, make their way through the filter. Copious research has shown that subconscious priming of certain ideas can covertly influence thoughts and behavior.

For this reason, some psychologists prefer to distinguish between implicit and explicit memory. In another approach, one can also describe a subliminal stimulus as meeting an objective but not a subjective threshold. The automaticity model, which became widespread following exposition by John Bargh and others in the s, describes sophisticated processes for executing goals which can be selected and performed over an extended duration without conscious awareness.

John Bargh, Daniel Wegner , and Ellen Langer are some prominent contemporary psychologists who describe free will as an illusion. Psychologists such as William James initially used the term motivation to refer to intention, in a sense similar to the concept of will in European philosophy. With the steady rise of Darwinian and Freudian thinking, instinct also came to be seen as a primary source of motivation. Psychoanalysis, like biology, regarded these forces as physical demands made by the organism on the nervous system.

However, they believed that these forces, especially the sexual instincts, could become entangled and transmuted within the psyche. Classical psychoanalysis conceives of a struggle between the pleasure principle and the reality principle , roughly corresponding to id and ego. Later, in Beyond the Pleasure Principle , Freud introduced the concept of the death drive , a compulsion towards aggression, destruction, and psychic repetition of traumatic events.

Hunger, thirst, fear, sexual desire, and thermoregulation all seem to constitute fundamental motivations for animals. Motivation can be modulated or manipulated in many different ways. Researchers have found that eating , for example, depends not only on the organism's fundamental need for homeostasis —an important factor causing the experience of hunger—but also on circadian rhythms, food availability, food palatability, and cost. They suggest that this principle can even apply to food, drink, sex, and sleep.

Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on cognitive, affective, moral, social, or neural development. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks. Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of infants.

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In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change such as adolescence and old age. Developmental psychologists draw on the full range of psychological theories to inform their research. All researched psychological traits are influenced by both genes and environment, to varying degrees.

An example is the transmission of depression from a depressed mother to her offspring. Theory may hold that the offspring, by virtue of having a depressed mother in his or her the offspring's environment, is at risk for developing depression. However, risk for depression is also influenced to some extent by genes. The mother may both carry genes that contribute to her depression but will also have passed those genes on to her offspring thus increasing the offspring's risk for depression. Genes and environment in this simple transmission model are completely confounded.

Experimental and quasi-experimental behavioral genetic research uses genetic methodologies to disentangle this confound and understand the nature and origins of individual differences in behavior. More recently, the availability of microarray molecular genetic or genome sequencing technologies allows researchers to measure participant DNA variation directly, and test whether individual genetic variants within genes are associated with psychological traits and psychopathology through methods including genome-wide association studies. One goal of such research is similar to that in positional cloning and its success in Huntington's : once a causal gene is discovered biological research can be conducted to understand how that gene influences the phenotype.

One major result of genetic association studies is the general finding that psychological traits and psychopathology, as well as complex medical diseases, are highly polygenic , [] [] [] [] [] where a large number on the order of hundreds to thousands of genetic variants, each of small effect, contribute to individual differences in the behavioral trait or propensity to the disorder. Active research continues to understand the genetic and environmental bases of behavior and their interaction. Psychology encompasses many subfields and includes different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior:.

Psychological testing has ancient origins, such as examinations for the Chinese civil service dating back to BC. By , the Chinese system required a stratified series of tests, involving essay writing and knowledge of diverse topics. The system was ended in Physiognomy remained current through the Enlightenment, and added the doctrine of phrenology: a study of mind and intelligence based on simple assessment of neuroanatomy.

When experimental psychology came to Britain, Francis Galton was a leading practitioner, and, with his procedures for measuring reaction time and sensation, is considered an inventor of modern mental testing also known as psychometrics. Binet and Simon introduced the concept of mental age and referred to the lowest scorers on their test as idiots. Henry H. Goddard put the Binet-Simon scale to work and introduced classifications of mental level such as imbecile and feebleminded.

In after Binet's death , Stanford professor Lewis M. Terman modified the Binet-Simon scale renamed the Stanford—Binet scale and introduced the intelligence quotient as a score report. Their dullness seems to be racial. The federally created National Intelligence Test was administered to 7 million children in the s, and in the College Entrance Examination Board created the Scholastic Aptitude Test to standardize college admissions. Setting a precedent which has never been overturned, the U. Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of this practice in the case Buck v.

Today mental testing is a routine phenomenon for people of all ages in Western societies. The provision of psychological health services is generally called clinical psychology in the U. The definitions of this term are various and may include school psychology and counseling psychology. Practitioners typically includes people who have graduated from doctoral programs in clinical psychology but may also include others. In Canada, the above groups usually fall within the larger category of professional psychology. In Canada and the US, practitioners get bachelor's degrees and doctorates, then spend one year in an internship and one year in postdoctoral education.

In Mexico and most other Latin American and European countries, psychologists do not get bachelor's and doctorate degrees; instead, they take a three-year professional course following high school. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.

Credit for the first psychology clinic in the United States typically goes to Lightner Witmer, who established his practice in Philadelphia in Another modern psychotherapist was Morton Prince. Psychology entered the field with its refinements of mental testing, which promised to improve diagnosis of mental problems. For their part, some psychiatrists became interested in using psychoanalysis and other forms of psychodynamic psychotherapy to understand and treat the mentally ill. The therapist seeks to uncover repressed material and to understand why the patient creates defenses against certain thoughts and feelings.

An important aspect of the therapeutic relationship is transference , in which deep unconscious feelings in a patient reorient themselves and become manifest in relation to the therapist. Psychiatric psychotherapy blurred the distinction between psychiatry and psychology, and this trend continued with the rise of community mental health facilities and behavioral therapy , a thoroughly non-psychodynamic model which used behaviorist learning theory to change the actions of patients. A key aspect of behavior therapy is empirical evaluation of the treatment's effectiveness.

In the s, cognitive-behavior therapy arose, using similar methods and now including the cognitive constructs which had gained popularity in theoretical psychology. A key practice in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy is exposing patients to things they fear, based on the premise that their responses fear, panic, anxiety can be deconditioned. Mental health care today involves psychologists and social workers in increasing numbers. In , National Institute of Mental Health director Bertram Brown described this shift as a source of "intense competition and role confusion". This degree is intended to train practitioners who might conduct scientific research.

Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury—this area is known as clinical neuropsychology. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The emerging field of disaster psychology see crisis intervention involves professionals who respond to large-scale traumatic events. The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be influenced by various therapeutic approaches, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client usually an individual, couple, family, or small group.

Typically, these approaches encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Four major theoretical perspectives are psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, existential—humanistic, and systems or family therapy. There has been a growing movement to integrate the various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual orientation. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is evidence that most of the major therapies have equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance.

New editions over time have increased in size and focused more on medical language. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget , and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices. Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs in places such as North America, Australia, and New Zealand. School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities; to foster the intellectual growth of gifted students; to facilitate prosocial behaviors in adolescents; and otherwise to promote safe, supportive, and effective learning environments.

School psychologists are trained in educational and behavioral assessment, intervention, prevention, and consultation, and many have extensive training in research. Industrialists soon brought the nascent field of psychology to bear on the study of scientific management techniques for improving workplace efficiency. This field was at first called economic psychology or business psychology ; later, industrial psychology , employment psychology , or psychotechnology.

With funding from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Fund and guidance from Australian psychologist Elton Mayo , Western Electric experimented on thousands of factory workers to assess their responses to illumination, breaks, food, and wages. The researchers came to focus on workers' responses to observation itself, and the term Hawthorne effect is now used to describe the fact that people work harder when they think they're being watched. The name industrial and organizational psychology I—O arose in the s and became enshrined as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, in Personnel psychology, a subfield of I—O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers.

I—O psychology's other subfield, organizational psychology , examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction, and productivity. One role for psychologists in the military is to evaluate and counsel soldiers and other personnel. In the U. S Army psychology includes psychological screening, clinical psychotherapy, suicide prevention , and treatment for post-traumatic stress, as well as other aspects of health and workplace psychology such as smoking cessation.

Psychologists may also work on a diverse set of campaigns known broadly as psychological warfare. Psychological warfare chiefly involves the use of propaganda to influence enemy soldiers and civilians. In the case of so-called black propaganda the propaganda is designed to seem like it originates from a different source. Medical facilities increasingly employ psychologists to perform various roles. A prominent aspect of health psychology is the psychoeducation of patients: instructing them in how to follow a medical regimen. Health psychologists can also educate doctors and conduct research on patient compliance.

Psychologists in the field of public health use a wide variety of interventions to influence human behavior. These range from public relations campaigns and outreach to governmental laws and policies. Psychologists study the composite influence of all these different tools in an effort to influence whole populations of people. Black American psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark studied the psychological impact of segregation and testified with their findings in the desegregation case Brown v.

Board of Education Positive psychology is the study of factors which contribute to human happiness and well-being, focusing more on people who are currently healthy. In , Clinical Psychological Review published a special issue devoted to positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude journaling and the physical expression of gratitude. Positive psychological interventions have been limited in scope, but their effects are thought to be superior to that of placebos , especially with regard to helping people with body image problems.

Quantitative psychological research lends itself to the statistical testing of hypotheses. Although the field makes abundant use of randomized and controlled experiments in laboratory settings, such research can only assess a limited range of short-term phenomena. Thus, psychologists also rely on creative statistical methods to glean knowledge from clinical trials and population data. The measurement and operationalization of important constructs is an essential part of these research designs.

A true experiment with random allocation of subjects to conditions allows researchers to make strong inferences about causal relationships. In an experiment, the researcher alters parameters of influence, called independent variables , and measures resulting changes of interest, called dependent variables. Prototypical experimental research is conducted in a laboratory with a carefully controlled environment.

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Repeated-measures experiments are those which take place through intervention on multiple occasions. In research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy, experimenters often compare a given treatment with placebo treatments, or compare different treatments against each other. Treatment type is the independent variable. The dependent variables are outcomes, ideally assessed in several ways by different professionals. Quasi-experimental design refers especially to situations precluding random assignment to different conditions.

Researchers can use common sense to consider how much the nonrandom assignment threatens the study's validity. Psychologists will compare the achievement of children attending phonics and whole language classes. Experimental researchers typically use a statistical hypothesis testing model which involves making predictions before conducting the experiment, then assessing how well the data supports the predictions. These predictions may originate from a more abstract scientific hypothesis about how the phenomenon under study actually works.

Analysis of variance ANOVA statistical techniques are used to distinguish unique results of the experiment from the null hypothesis that variations result from random fluctuations in data. Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, checking the validity of experimental manipulations, and for other psychological topics.

Most commonly, psychologists use paper-and-pencil surveys.

Psychologists in integrated health care: Geriatrics

However, surveys are also conducted over the phone or through e-mail. Web-based surveys are increasingly used to conveniently reach many subjects. Neuropsychological tests , such as the Wechsler scales and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test , are mostly questionnaires or simple tasks used which assess a specific type of mental function in the respondent.


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These can be used in experiments, as in the case of lesion experiments evaluating the results of damage to a specific part of the brain. Observational studies analyze uncontrolled data in search of correlations; multivariate statistics are typically used to interpret the more complex situation. Cross-sectional observational studies use data from a single point in time, whereas longitudinal studies are used to study trends across the life span. Longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore detect more individual, rather than cultural, differences.

However, they suffer from lack of controls and from confounding factors such as selective attrition the bias introduced when a certain type of subject disproportionately leaves a study. Exploratory data analysis refers to a variety of practices which researchers can use to visualize and analyze existing sets of data. In Peirce's three modes of inference , exploratory data analysis corresponds to abduction , or hypothesis formation. A classic and popular tool used to relate mental and neural activity is the electroencephalogram EEG , a technique using amplified electrodes on a person's scalp to measure voltage changes in different parts of the brain.

Hans Berger , the first researcher to use EEG on an unopened skull, quickly found that brains exhibit signature "brain waves": electric oscillations which correspond to different states of consciousness. Researchers subsequently refined statistical methods for synthesizing the electrode data, and identified unique brain wave patterns such as the delta wave observed during non-REM sleep. Newer functional neuroimaging techniques include functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography , both of which track the flow of blood through the brain.

These technologies provide more localized information about activity in the brain and create representations of the brain with widespread appeal. They also provide insight which avoids the classic problems of subjective self-reporting. It remains challenging to draw hard conclusions about where in the brain specific thoughts originate—or even how usefully such localization corresponds with reality.

However, neuroimaging has delivered unmistakable results showing the existence of correlations between mind and brain. Some of these draw on a systemic neural network model rather than a localized function model. Psychiatric interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and drugs also provide information about brain—mind interactions. Psychopharmacology is the study of drug-induced mental effects. Computational modeling is a tool used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate behavior.

Since modern computers process information quickly, simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for high statistical power. Modeling also allows psychologists to visualize hypotheses about the functional organization of mental events that couldn't be directly observed in a human. Computational neuroscience uses mathematical models to simulate the brain. Another method is symbolic modeling, which represents many mental objects using variables and rules.

Other types of modeling include dynamic systems and stochastic modeling. Animal experiments aid in investigating many aspects of human psychology, including perception, emotion, learning, memory, and thought, to name a few. In the s, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning. Non-human primates, cats, dogs, pigeons, rats, and other rodents are often used in psychological experiments.

Ideally, controlled experiments introduce only one independent variable at a time, in order to ascertain its unique effects upon dependent variables. These conditions are approximated best in laboratory settings. In contrast, human environments and genetic backgrounds vary so widely, and depend upon so many factors, that it is difficult to control important variables for human subjects.

There are pitfalls in generalizing findings from animal studies to humans through animal models. Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Research in this area explores the behavior of many species, from insects to primates.

It is closely related to other disciplines that study animal behavior such as ethology. Research designed to answer questions about the current state of affairs such as the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals is known as descriptive research. Descriptive research can be qualitative or quantitative in orientation. Qualitative research is descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all of the richness of everyday behavior and with the hope of discovering and understanding phenomena that might have been missed if only more cursory examinations have been made.

Qualitative psychological research methods include interviews, first-hand observation, and participant observation. Creswell identifies five main possibilities for qualitative research, including narrative, phenomenology, ethnography , case study , and grounded theory. Qualitative researchers [] sometimes aim to enrich interpretations or critiques of symbols, subjective experiences, or social structures.

Sometimes hermeneutic and critical aims can give rise to quantitative research, as in Erich Fromm's study of Nazi voting [ citation needed ] or Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority. Just as Jane Goodall studied chimpanzee social and family life by careful observation of chimpanzee behavior in the field, psychologists conduct naturalistic observation of ongoing human social, professional, and family life.

In his most recent work, Kagan has written several books for a popular audience with the aim of pushing back against the tidal wave of materialist reductionism the idea that the mind is nothing but the brain in psychology and the wider culture. Kagan is the author or co-author of some peer-reviewed journal articles and books chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of more than 30 books.

However, he was raised in Paris, where his parents had emigrated from Lithuania. After spending the war years in hiding in Nazi-occupied France, the family emigrated to Israel permanently in Kahneman is chiefly known for founding together with his long-time collaborator, Amos Tversky, who died in the academic discipline now known as behavioral economics. Traditional economic theory had always assumed that human beings are rational actors, which means they can generally be relied upon to act in ways they perceive as furthering their own best interests.

This idea was called rational choice theory or expected utility theory. Kahneman and Tversky felt that rational choice theory was unrealistic, and they set out to develop more empirically adequate models by making the more realistic assumption of bounded rationality. Bounded rationality is the idea that, not only are human actors constrained by emotional factors such as irrational aversions and prejudices, they are simply not very good at reasoning correctly about certain kinds of situations especially ones involving probabilities.

Kahneman and Tversky made a special study of the irrational bias they called loss aversion —-the common feeling that it is better to avoid losing something than it is to gain the same thing. According to this theory, the fast system has been hard-wired in us by evolution to enable us to react quickly to stressful situations based on rough-and-ready, heuristic behavioral propensities. The slow system, on the other hand, allows us to reflect upon our experience in a more relaxed and thoughtful way.

Kahneman has authored or co-authored some peer-reviewed journal article and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of seven books. Kurzban was born in Poughkeepsie, New York, in He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. As a student of Cosmides, Kurzban belongs to the second generation of evolutionary psychologists on evolutionary psychology, see the entry for David M. In a nutshell, he attempts to identify the selective advantage of particular human social behavioral traits in the context of our environment of evolutionary adaptedness EEA.

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To cite one well-known example from his work, Kurzban has argued that human beings undoubtedly possess an innate tendency to notice facial and other morphological features of people different from themselves, due to the social context of small-scale hunter-gatherer bands within which hominization occurred. However, while to our modern eyes this history may appear unfortunate, giving rise to racism, the tendency itself is not really linked to race as such which is in any case a modern social construct. Kurzban has applied similar reasoning to other phenomena such as cooperation, morality, and mate choice drawing out implications for modern speed dating!

Most recently, he has been a key player in the debate over the modularity of brain functions, a crucial assumption underlying evolutionary psychology. He also serves as Editor-in-Chief of Evolution and Human Behavior , and is the author or co-author of around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of seven books. Lewis was born in France in He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Sussex.

The focus of his doctoral work was on the treatment of phobias and general anxiety states. Lewis originally intended to become a doctor, but never received his medical degree. During his time in medical school, he earned his living by his pen he published his first novel at the age of 16!

After leaving medical school, Lewis worked full-time for the next 10 years as a freelance journalist, photographer, and writer. During this period, he also worked in broadcast journalism, mainly as a presenter for the BBC on the radio and television. It was only after these experiences that he decided to pursue his higher education in psychology, as already outlined above. After graduation, Lewis taught for a while, before qualifying as a Chartered Psychologist and setting up in private practice, where, building upon his graduate school studies, he specialized in treating phobias and anxiety.

During this time, he pioneered a new type of therapy called neurofeedback, whereby patients monitor their own brain states in real time in response to various positive and negative stimuli, eventually learning to improve control over their emotions. Lewis also conducted research into the interaction between breathing and emotion, which resulted in a new form of breath-control therapy Bo-tau for controlling anxiety, phobic responses, and panic attacks. Moreover, he has used his insights into the way the mind and body work together to develop training programs in other fields of endeavor, such as sports and business.

In addition, he is considered to be the father of neuromarketing, a discipline which uses fMRI and other technology to study how prospective consumers respond to advertisements and other marketing stimuli. The author or co-author of more than 30 books, many of them bestsellers, Lewis is in high demand as a public speaker. He is also Director of Research at Mindlab International , an internationally recognized neuromarketing firm. Linehan was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in Patients suffering from BPD present with extremely volatile emotions and disturbed thinking, without crossing the line into full-blown schizophrenia—-hence the notion that they occupy a borderline between neurosis and psychosis.

Co-morbidities of BPD include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, self-harm, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. Linehan has revealed that she herself was extremely troubled as an adolescent in retrospect, she believes she suffered from BPD and spent two years in a mental hospital, submitting to the relatively crude treatments then available.

This experience lay at the root of her determination to study her own condition scientifically. As she put it many years later:. Linehan was initially drawn to cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT , with its emphasis on helping patients to re-frame their conflicts in a more realistic way to enable them to gain sufficient detachment to bring their emotions under better voluntary control on CBT, see the entry for Aaron T. Beck, above. Soon, however, she felt that another component was needed—-religious faith.

Linehan has written that her Catholic faith played an important role in her own eventual recovery. As an evidence-based therapy, DBT is considered by many experts to be the most effective treatment available for BPD and allied illnesses. Linehan is the author or co-author of around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author or co-author of seven books and manuals, several of which have been translated into many foreign languages.

Beginning in the s, she conducted a series of experiments designed to reveal the stability of memory of recent events in the light of contradictory information given to the subject after the fact. Her conclusions showed that it is easy to convince people that their memories are incorrect, and even to cause them to change what they claim to remember—-a phenomenon she dubbed the misinformation effect. Generalizing from such laboratory studies, Loftus concluded that human memories are constantly being reconstructed, and hence are far more malleable and open to suggestion than previously thought.

Loftus and her work rocketed to fame in the early s when she gave expert testimony in a series of court cases involving the phenomenon of so-called repressed memory. At that time, the idea that the memory of traumatic events might be repressed and only recalled years or even decades later under questioning by experts had taken hold of the public imagination.

Prominent cases involved purported mass child molestation and Satanic rituals. Loftus is the author or co-author of close to peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor more than 20 books. Meltzoff was born in Meltzoff began his career by studying the ability of very young infants to imitate adult facial expressions and manual gestures, culminating in a landmark paper published in , [6] in which Meltzoff and co-author M.

Keith Moore established conclusively that infants as young as two weeks old are capable of reliably imitating adult expressions and gestures—-one of the first results to demonstrate that neonates possess far more sophisticated cognitive abilities than anyone had hitherto suspected. Subsequent studies demonstrated similar abilities in newborns within the first hour after birth.

These findings were revolutionary in several respects, not least in light of their cross-modal character vision and proprioception , which implied the existence of a highly developed innate cognitive faculty in newborns. As a result of his decades of research on infants, Meltzoff stresses the importance of infant imitation for laying the proper foundations for the normal development of our very humanity:. Meltzoff is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and has co-authored or edited four books, including three in collaboration with Alison Gopnik see above.

The recipient of many awards, grants, and honorary degrees, Meltzoff sits on the editorial board of eight academic journals and the advisory board or board of trustees of four foundations. Miller was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in His dissertation, written under the supervision of Roger N. Miller has done research in a number of different areas of psychology, above all, in evolutionary psychology, and especially in two sub-fields within that discipline: human sexual selection and the new field of evolutionary consumer psychology.

On evolutionary psychology in general, see the discussion under the entry for David M. Sexual selection, in a nutshell, is the idea that the sexes may sometimes evolve independently of each other through adaptations geared specifically to the mating preferences of the opposite sex. Miller is especially known for his work on updating famed statistician Ronald A. The extravagant antlers of the extinct Irish elk are often cited as a case in point. Miller has argued that the human brain, whose rapid size increase he believes was due to intense sexual selection pressure, is a Fisherian runaway, and that therefore we should be very careful about the effects of our intelligence on our long-term survival.

Miller has also been at the forefront of developing the new field of evolutionary consumer psychology, which basically uses the logic of sexual selection to explain many features of modern consumer society, by linking them with high social status in males as a marker of reproductive success. All of this work is highly controversial, both inside the academy and out. Note : Walter Mischel passed on September 12, Mischel was born in Vienna, Austria, in His family fled to the US after the Anschluss in , settling in Brooklyn. Mischel is most closely associated with the claim, originally made in his book Personality and Assessment , that personality traits are highly context-dependent, and that the notion there is a stable personality which manifests uniformly over time and across varied social contexts, as previously believed, is a myth.

He did not deny the reality of a fundamental underlying personality altogether, but claimed that its expression is highly complex, and best characterized in terms of contextualized, conditional if-then patterns of behavior. Mischel devised a simple experimental situation in which a child was offered the choice between one immediate treat or two treats after a relatively brief lapse of time. This became known as the marshmallow test after a favorite treat used by investigators.

The experiment was run on large numbers of children who were then followed longitudinally, so that it became possible to correlate test results with various academic and life outcomes over time. Mischel found that many years later children who were able to delay gratification had superior academic achievement, greater family and job stability, and even higher earnings.

Mischel is the author or co-author of some peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author or co-author of four books. He is the recipient of far too many grants, awards, prizes, honorary degrees, consultancies, and editorships to mention here. Nadel was born in New York City in Throughout his career, Nadel has worked on the neural underpinnings of memory, though he has also branched out into other fields, such as the neurobiology and treatment of Down Syndrome.

The hippocampus is a structure within the limbic system of the brain, between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. In later work, Nadel put forward what became known as the multiple trace theory of memory, according to which the hippocampus remains the principal neural structure involved in storage and retrieval of episodic memory recall of events we have experienced , while semantic memory recall of linguistically mediated facts, such as, for Americans, the significance of the year is based in the neocortex. Nadel has also been involved in following up on some of the implications of his early studies on the hippocampus, notably in such areas as the relationship between stress and memory and sleep and memory, as well as memory re-consolidation and the memory deficits associated with Down syndrome.

Nadel has authored or co-authored more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. Pargament was born in Washington, DC, in He has focused on developing a systematic theoretical framework, both for conducting empirical research on religion and psychology and for developing assessments and interventions of practical relevance to helping professionals.

For example, Pargament developed the RCOPE Questionnaire designed to measure religious coping strategies, which he believes may be usefully grouped into three broad categories. Correlatively, Pargament has identified four attitudes toward religion on the part of psychotherapists: rejectionists, who disdain religion and refuse to recognize any therapeutic value in it; exclusivists, who regard religion as an essential component of therapy for everyone regardless of belief; constructionists, who are willing to incorporate religion into therapy, but who deny the objective existence of transcendent or any other reality; and pluralists, who recognize the reality of the transcendent, but also acknowledge the validity of different approaches to it.

Pargament has courted controversy by questioning the overwhelmingly rejectionist status quo of the psychology profession, and by maintaining that religious training, preferably along pluralistic lines, ought to be a mandatory component of the education of psychotherapists. Pargament is the author or co-author of around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author or editor of five books. Pinker was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in Pinker began his career with a focus on the computational theory of mind the idea that the brain is a computer and thinking a program , particularly in relation to language.

In line with the well-known work of Noam Chomsky, Pinker further argued that the capacity for language is instinctive with respect to deep grammatical structure universal grammar , and that experience merely shapes this instinctive behavior into the specific forms surface grammar and lexicon of a particular language. Pinker was also involved during the s in a significant, if highly technical, dispute over connectionist models of mind and speech.

Connectionism, as it relates to cognitive psychology, is the idea that the form of computation employed by the mind is massively parallel, distributed processing—-as opposed to the serial processing used by an ordinary laptop. While this early psycholinguistics research won Pinker a solid reputation among his peers, it was his writings for a popular audience that made him a household name among the wider educated public. His first book for a mass readership, The Language Instinct , drove home in elegant prose the inarguable importance of the innate language faculty for our humanity.

Most recently, he maintained in The Better Angels of Our Nature that an objective analysis of human history gives reason for optimism, despite the fashionable pessimism of our cultural moment. Nor has it hurt that he is a well-known atheist activist, or that many of his books contain a subtext of secularist evangelism, weaving themes from evolutionary psychology throughout see the entry for David M. In addition to his many essays, book reviews, and op-ed pieces for the popular press, Pinker has published around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of some 14 books.

He is the recipient of many grants, fellowships, awards, lectureships, editorships, and honorary degrees. Posner was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in He obtained his PhD in psychology in from the University of Michigan. In the course of his research, he has developed several important new experimental techniques and protocols. For example, he has used electrooculography EOG technology, which precisely tracks eye movements using a set of electrodes surrounding the eyes, to create a new research protocol that bears his name. The Posner cueing task enables very precise measurement of reaction times using a special visual field chart he developed that interacts with the EOG device.

This information, in turn, can be used in a wide variety of ways, in both clinical and experimental settings. For example, in a clinical setting the Posner cueing task may be employed to assess attention deficits in a subject following brain injury. On a more theoretical plane, the protocol may facilitate various inferences about the nature of the neural computations underlying attention. Another protocol that Posner has played a crucial role in popularizing within the cognitive psychology community is the so-called subtractive method, which basically attempts to decompose a complex cognitive task into a sequence of simpler operations by comparing the effects of the presence and the absence of a given operation.

The functional roles of the simpler operations can then be more easily studied individually using the techniques already mentioned. Posner is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the author, co-author, or editor of books. He is the recipient of far too many grants, fellowships, awards, prizes, honorary degrees, lectureships, editorships, and visiting professorships to mention, and has served on the boards of a great many academic bodies, research foundations, and government committees.

Rosch was born in New York City in Early in her career, she published under the name Eleanor Rosch Heider. Rosch works in the area of cognitive science which investigates the way the brain organizes and structures information about the world, also known as categorization. In human beings, mental categorization has both innate biological and acquired learned aspects. The problem consists both in teasing these contributions apart, and also in giving them a more specific theoretical characterization.

Rosch is especially known for several empirically based contributions, such as our reliance on prototypes to characterize categories.


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Finally, Rosch also did highly influential theoretical work that sought to clarify the very idea of categorization at a philosophical level. Here, she began by postulating two basic principles: first, the task of category systems is to provide maximum information with the least cognitive effort; second, the perceived world comes as structured information rather than as arbitrary or unpredictable attributes.

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Note the studied equivocation in this formulation regarding the ontological status of the perceived world structure one might well wonder what the point of such a close mapping might be, if perceived world structure did not in turn map closely onto real world structure. In some cases, it even inspired whole new intellectual movements, such as object-oriented ontology now much employed in the design of computer databases.

Rosch is the author or co-author of many peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the co-author or co-editor of two books. Rutter was born in Lebanon, where his English father worked as a doctor, in He returned to England with his family at an early age. After the war, he completed his secondary education in York, back in the UK. His ground-breaking work on developmental neuropsychiatry, in general, and on autism, in particular, has won for him the sobriquet, the Father of Child Psychiatry in the UK. His earliest work involved epidemiological studies of social deprivation among poor populations on the Isle of Wight and in London.

In studying cognitive and emotional deficits in these populations, especially in children diagnosed with autism, Rutter combined traditional questionnaires and other means of gatherings vital statistics with new technologies, including DNA analysis and neuroimaging. Other topics he has studied over the years include the influence of families and schools on child development, reading disorders, and the comparative importance of genetic and environmental factors on normal and pathological development. Rutter pointed to many other factors besides the quality of mothering that may have a demonstrable influence on healthy psychological development, including genetic endowment, the wider family, the school, and various other social, institutional, and ecological environments.

Rutter is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the author, co-author, or editor of some 40 books. Schmid Mast was born in in the small town of Olten in Switzerland, about halfway between Basel and Zurich. After initially studying business and economics and working for a computer company for a time, she entered medical school at the University of Zurich. In more narrowly targeted research, she has studied the effects that first impressions have on interpersonal interactions and how people in organizational hierarchies evaluate each other, as well as the accuracy of the impressions of other people that subjects within such structures form.

Her findings are quite general and apply to hierarchical organizations of all sorts; for example, her work has elucidated ways in which physician-patient communication may influence clinical outcomes. Schmidt Mast has also made pioneering use of technology to investigate interpersonal behavior and communication, as well as to analyze nonverbal behavior in social interactions.

These include immersive virtual environment technology and computer-based automatic sensing.

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She has also used the results of such studies to evaluate the likelihood of stereotype threat negative self-perceptions based on gender stereotypes impacting women in social interactions. Schmid Mast has published over peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters during the past 10 years alone — , and is the author or co-editor of three books. Psychophysics or experimental psychology was pioneered by German scientists such as Gustav Fechner — , Hermann von Helmholtz , and Wilhelm Wundt However, he has also done work on vision and on multimodal sensory processing.

One of his major contributions has involved modeling prediction in relation to audition.