This research delivers novel targets for fast diagnostics, innovative preventive or therapeutic interventions with anti-microbial agents, human monoclonal antibodies or vaccines, and compounds that can serve in both therapeutic and diagnostic applications theragnostics. A fundamental aspect of the bacteriological studies is the analysis of the secretome, which is a major reservoir of compounds that directly interact with the human host thereby influencing health in negative or positive ways. To obtain deeper insights into the roles of the secretome in bacterial fitness, growth, survival and antibiosis, Systems Biology approaches are applied.
The transmission dynamics of bacterial pathogens are defined by modern network analyses and mathematical modelling to understand their global distribution and to pinpoint the ost effective intervention possibilities. Transmission and immunological aspects of bacterial colonization are also studied in close collaboration with dermatologists focusing on blistering diseases. Research in oral microbiology is focused on the role of anaerobic bacteria in oral diseases, such as periodontitis, peri-implant infections and endodontic infections, as well as non-oral diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and the chronic destruction of hard and soft tissues.
Related to bacterial infections afflicting less privileged populations, our research addresses tuberculosis and Buruli ulcer in various regions around the world with various partners, including the WHO. In this context, the beneficial gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is studied as a potential probiotic for the promotion of gut health.
What are good and bad soil microorganisms?
These include flaviviruses dengue virus, West Nile virus and other vector-borne viruses Chikungunya virus , influenza and other respiratory viruses respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], rhinovirus , tumor-associated viruses human papilloma virus [HPV], hepatitis C virus [HCV] , and hepatitis E virus HEV. The research activities range from unraveling virus-host cell interactions and development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, to cancer immunotherapies and the establishment of new diagnostic tools and studies on virus epidemiology.
Mathematical modelling and network analyses are used to integrate the biological information with transmission dynamics in patient populations and the community. This has yielded predictive models of patho-adaptation and of the local nosocomial , cross-border and global spreading of infectious diseases. The mission of the 'Microbes in Health and Disease' program is to define the detrimental and beneficial roles of microorganisms in human health and disease, and to exploit this knowledge in the prevention and fight against infectious diseases in order to promote healthy ageing.
This will be achieved through the integration of fundamental, translational, clinical application and behavior-oriented drug research.
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The respective research activities see 1. At the same time, antibiotic resistance, accelerated by insufficient antibiotic stewardship and drug abuse in veterinary practice, is developing fast and catching up with formerly effective measures to prevent or fight infections.
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Consequently, completely untreatable microbial infections and conditions like those in the 'pre-antibiotics era' are rapidly emerging, which will have a major impact on healthy ageingin the very near future. In developed countries, untreatable infections form an increasing threat for very young, frail elderly, immune-compromised and critically ill individuals. In less privileged parts of the world the burden of infectious diseases is much higher and here untreatable infections, including multidrug resistant tuberculosis MDRTB and viral epidemics, are serious threats, also for healthy individuals.
This means that some bacteria can share their DNA and make other germs become resistant. Example: Gram-negative bacteria have an outer layer membrane that protects them from their environment. These bacteria can use this membrane to selectively keep antibiotic drugs from entering.
Example: Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria can produce pumps to get rid of several different important antibiotic drugs, including fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim. Example: Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria produce enzymes called carbapenemases, which break down carbapenem drugs and most other beta-lactam drugs.
Example: Staphylococcus aureus bacteria add compounds to aminoglycoside drugs to change its function. Example: Some Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can bypass the drug effects of trimethoprim. Example: E. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. On This Page. How Germs Become Resistant. Examples of Defense Strategies for Germs Germs can use defense strategies to resist the effects of antibiotics. Here are a few examples.
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Resistance Mechanisms Defense Strategies Resistance Mechanisms Defense Strategies Description Restrict access of the antibiotic By limiting the number or changing the size of the openings in the cell wall, resistant bacteria can keep antibiotic drugs from entering the cell altogether. Get rid of the antibiotic Resistant bacteria can use pumps in their cell walls to remove antibiotic drugs that enter the cell. Destroy the antibiotic Some resistant bacteria use enzymes to break down the antibiotic drug and make it ineffective.
Example: Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria produce enzymes called carbapenemases, which break down carbapenem drugs and most other beta-lactam drugs Change the antibiotic Other resistant bacteria use enzymes to alter the antibiotic drug so that it loses its effectiveness. Here, we will examine the effects of the presence in soils of both, beneficial, and pathogenic microorganisms. Most microorganisms in the soil have a beneficial effect in the rhizosphere, which is the soil region around the roots and containing the soil microbes.
In the rhizosphereplant roots release molecules such as acids and sugars into the surrounding soil, and these root secretions attract a variety of soil microorganisms. For instance, the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria PGPR promotes plant growth improving infection response, growth rate and overall plant fitness Source. Moreover, the microorganisms in the rhizosphere promote nutrient turnover and cycling, decomposition of organic matter, and often form symbiotic relationships with the plant, further promoting healthy crop yields, good quality produce and a healthy ecosystem.
The symbiotic interaction between fungi and plant roots, known as mycorrhiza, is another example of the beneficial effect that microorganisms have on plant health. The fungi participating in the mycorrhiza promote the absorption of minerals and nutrients from the soil, most notably phosphorus and zinc, while protecting the roots from harmful pathogens; meanwhile, the plant provides the fungi with vital carbohydrates.
The presence of beneficial microorganisms in agricultural soil often implies a lower need to use pesticides and fungicides, as healthy soils promote healthy and disease-resistant crops.
This can be seen in occurrences in which pesticides are replaced by bacterial strains for biological pest control, such as the use of Bacillus thuringiensis BT in which no harm is brought to the crop, to the surrounding ecosystem or to the human health Source. Furthermore, biological pest control reduces the environmental strain placed on agricultural practices and contributes towards a healthier ecosystem and more sustainable practices, as there is a reduced need for chemical use. In addition, beneficial microorganisms used for biological pest controls can also improve soil health, promoting soil fertility and consequently increasing crop yields.
Not to mention that the improvement in the crop quality will also reach consumer level, as products will retain a higher quality in nutrient and water content. On the other hand, pathogenic microorganisms present in agricultural soils can have a harmful effect on the crop inducing: i pathogenicity and disease, ii resistance to crop control products, iii poor soil health or reduced fertility, iv poor crop health or poor yields, and lastly v crop loss.
In a nutshell, pathogenic microbes can be detrimental to crop yield, reduce food quality and promote disease spread. These pathogens are often difficult to control and to manage, once widespread. Pathogenic microorganisms include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses.
Microbes and Land Use Change - microbewiki
Some of these pathogenic microorganisms will decompose root nodules, leaching nutrients from the plant, reducing the efficiency of nutrient uptake and mobilization, and further leading to nutrient deficiency and stunted plant growth. The presence of pathogens can also impact photosynthetic functioning, causing chlorosis and necrosis of leaves and stems resulting in a reduction in the translocation of water and nutrients through the vascular system. This often occurs through the assistance of toxins that colonize the host tissue; these toxins have a negative impact on the host plant and are often host-specific.